Assens Fjernvarme (Denmark) has supplemented their existing wood chip combined heat and power plant and an existing wind turbine with a solar cell system and an air to water heat pump system. This unique combination of renewable energy sources makes it possible to combine a low price for heat consumers with the production of green electricity when the electricity market needs electricity and purchase electricity from the electricity grid when there is a surplus of green electricity in the grid.
The city of Neustrelitz is a very ambitious municipality, especially in the areas of renewable energies, climate protection, and digitization. The local public utility company (Stadtwerke Neustrelitz), the municipality and the State Centre for Renewable Energy MV work hand in hand to promote the sustainable development of the municipality. The new city strategy for 2025 “green smart digital” unites the visions of the local actors. The development and implementation of a green business park is a further component in the realisation of the city vision 2025.
An interesting energy cooperation solution can be found in Tuscany, where one can find an industrial area mainly composed of several tanneries and a shared
wastewater treatment plant, managed by Cuoiodepur. Several local stakeholders agreed on the following principles:
1.) Energy cooperation is considered as a chance to highlight the efforts of industrial park towards a low carbon economy.
2.) Reduction of energy costs.
3.) Energy autonomy in order to avoid the risks associated with the volatility of energy prices and enhance the use of potential energy.
4.) A more economic and environmentally sustainable management of solid and liquid waste.
The target city of the Upgrade DH project in Croatia is the city of Sisak. It is a middle sized city located in the Sisak – Moslavina County, southeast from the Croatian capital, Zagreb. The city is the administrative, cultural and historical center of the county, as well as one of Croatia’s biggest river ports and industrial cities. Total number of inhabitants is 47,768, as stated in the 2011 population census. Out of this number, 33,322 inhabitants live in the urban settlement.
The city of Tuzla is placed in North-East part of the country, with around 170,000 inhabitants. The DH system is based on cogeneration (CHP) in Tuzla’s coal-based power plant (Tuzla TPP)operated by EPBiH power utility. Tuzla TPP is the supplier of heat to both Tuzla City (220 MWth) and Lukavac city (50 MWth). In the near future, the town of Živinice is planned to be supplied with a thermal power of 70 MWth.
The district heating system of Brasov has gone through several transformations in the attempt to find a solution for the zones located within the urban agglomeration of Brașov. Unfortunately, the lack of vision and the misun- derstanding of the advantages of such a system, coupled with a legislation that allows for easily installing natural gas individual boilers, led to a situation where only 4% of the local population was still connected to the DH in 2014 (reference year of the project).The future of this system is directly linked to the local policies, which should be supported by the population, by the real estate developers and last but not least, by policy makers.
The current strategy is trying to provide insight into the renewable sources that could be used in the future in order to ensure energy security and cost efficient heat supply at local level.
The city of Litoměřice developed an Energy Concept in 2009 and adopted a Municipal Energy Plan in 2014. The main goal of the municipality is to reduce energy consumption by 20 % by 2030 (baseline year 2012). There are no specific targets regarding renewables (RES) in Litoměřice in the heating and cooling sector.
The city is developing a Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan as part of the Covenant of Mayors (www. eumayors.eu), which will define specific targets for RES.
As the district heating system in Herten is currently supplied with heat from coal-fired Combined Heat & Power (CHP), the approach was to frame a potential alternative mix of centralised heat supply units with a high share of renewable energy sources. It is aimed at designing a system which is technically feasible and to compare it to the current system with regard to the heating costs.
Brædstrup Fjernvarme has during the last 10 years been a Danish frontrunner in how to make district heating efficient, cheap for the customers and environmentally friendly at the same time through activities in the electricity market, smart metering, introduction of regularly service visits by the customers and support to improvement of house installations, implementation of the worlds first large scale solar district heating plant combined with natural gas fired CHP, implementation of borehole storage, heat pump and electric boiler to be able to maximise flexibility in the electricity market. The result has been a natural gas reduction of 38%.
The Hjallerup district heating network delivers heating to 1982 consumers in the towns of Hjallerup and Klokkerholm. Originally 2 CHP units produced all heat necessary. Nowadays, also a solar system, storage tank and biomass plant contribute to the delivery of more sustainable heat to the two towns.