In the city of Helsingborg in Sweden, the municipal energy company Öresundskraft supplies District Cooling to a variety of customers in the downtown area. Customers include large users such as a pharmaceutical production facility and a major hospital together with an array of offices and other commercial buildings. The system that has been in operation since 1999 has now been reengineered to allow for an expansion to 30 MW (thermal) cooling capacity and to significantly improve energy efficiency and environmental performance.
Within a privately owned residential building a variety of technologies are implemented to reduce the energy consumption. Both a solar heating system and heat pump are connected to a boiler for the heating of water. This water is used as sanitary hot water. Space heating and cooling is achieved from fan coil units (FCUs); where hot or cold water circulates inside the convectors depending on the need. Finally, underfloor heating is established through a closed water pipe system, with a heat pump as heating source. The monitoring of the entire system takes place in one control unit.
Southern European hospitals have high cooling and heating needs during the whole year. Combined district heating and cooling networks are, therefore, an interesting application. There are approximately 7,154 hospitals in Europe. Every hospital has considerable cooling needs and the excess heat from the cooling system can be captured and used in heat networks. Considering a conservative potential waste heat recovery tertiary buildings, up to 10 TWh year of heat could be supplied from this low-carbon source. The ReUseHeat project worked on an interesting application in hospitals in Madrid.
In 1984 the first geothermal plant has been established in Denmark, Thisted. In combination with two absorption heat pumps, excess heat from a waste incineration plant and a straw fired boiler it is part of a district heating network. This heat network delivers a total of 7 700 kW to 5 117 consumers in the area.